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Active : what subject does. Passive : The focus is on the action. Examples: Active : Tony killed Ravan . Passive : Ravan was killed by Tony. Conclusion: Active = subject + object Passive = object+be+v3+by subject Examples : Active: he is following us. Passive: we are being followed by him Active : I am buying a pen . Passive : A pen is being bought by me.
The common rule : Bring the object first. choose correct ‘be’ verb. change the verb into participle. add by + subject . How the subjct and the verb change : Subject : I , we , you , they, He , She . Object : Me , Us , You , Them , Him ,Her . Note: If there are two objects use any one. For example : She told us a story. 1- we were told a story by her 2- a story was told to us by her . – Active rule : have/has/had/is/am/are/was/were +to +v1 – Passive rule: have/has/had/is/am/are/was/were +to be+ v3 For example: We have to learn English . English has to be learnt. Modal auxilliary verbs: can , could , shall, should , may ,might ,will , would ,must . Active rule :Modals + v1 passive rule : Modals + be + v3 Examples : She can speak French. French can be spoken by her . Modals : must have , should have , could have , might have would have . Active : Modals + v3 Passive : Modals + been + v3 Example : They should have stolen my bag. my bag should have been stolen by them.
Simple present : obj + is/am/are +v3 Example : The poem is written by her.
Continuous present : obj + is/am/are+ being + v3 Example : Rice is being cooked by her.
Perfect present : Obi + have / has + been + v3 Example : Homework has been done by him.
Simple future : obj + will/shall + be+ v3 Example : beautiful poem will be written by her.
Perfect future : obj + will/shall + have been + v3 Example : Homework will have been done by him.
Note : negative sentences remain negative.
Example : active : they have not stolen my pen.
Passive : My pen has not been stolen.
Passive voice of “yes/no” questions : Active rule : did or does + subj + v1 + obj Passive rule : (was/were) or (is/am /are) + obj + v3
Examples : Can you speak English? Can English be spoken by you? Did you help him? Was he helped by you?