Posted in Languages, Learning, Listening, Reading, Self improvement, Speaking, Vocabulary, Writing

TOEFL vs IELTS

What is the IELTS?

IELTS is an abbreviation for International English Language Testing System. The test is available in two formats: ‘IELTS Academic’, for those planning to study at a higher education level abroad; and ‘IELTS General Training’, which focuses on social skills and workplace contexts.

What is the TOEFL?

TOEFL is an acronym for Test of English as a Foreign Language. It is an English proficiency test, developed by an American company, ETS, to measure an individual’s reading, speaking, writing, and listening proficiency in American English. TOEFL scores are a requirement for over 900 universities and other institutions in more than 130 countries. There are two methods of taking this test; it can be taken as a Paper-Based Test (TOEFL PBT) or an Internet-Based Test (TOEFL IBT) which is more popular.

These tests are standardized and this simply means that the scores are consistent all over the world . Both of them will test you on four main language skills and that is listening, speaking, reading and writing .

What is the difference between Toefl and ielts?

The major difference between these two tests is in speaking. While in TOEFL you have to talk to a computer, the IELTS requires you to talk to a real person. Many people find talking to a computer very strange and that is why they prefer the IELTS test.

Which test requires more preparation?

While both IELTS and TOEFL require basic preparation at least , many takers felt that to prepare for TOEFL was harder. But that varies with each individual. The difference in the test patterns may give rise to tasks that need more preparation.

Posted in Grammar, Languages, Learning, Reading, Self improvement, Speaking, Vocabulary, Writing

Most common adjectives in English

  • What is an adjective?

It’s a word that modifying the meaning of a noun or the pronoun .

  • Types of adjectives :
  • Descriptive adjectives : New, old, big, little, fast, slow…

  • Possessive : my, his, our, your, their, her,his,hers, mine, its, theirs, ours…

  • Quantitative : first, second, third, few, all…

  • Interrogative: which, what, whose…

  • Demostrative : This, That, these, those…

  • Distributive : each, every, either, neither…

  • Some rules for the use of adjectives :
  • When adjectives appear after the noun or pronoun, they will be preceded by a verb, often (but not always) an auxiliary verb such as ‘are’ or ‘is’.

  • Adjectives can be used in multiple forms (The tough, long and ultimately boring paper was one I needed to pass), they can appear before or after the noun or pronoun they are describing.

  • Examples of adjectives :
  • Adjective Before the Noun :
  1. Old woman.
  2. Red coat.
  3. Cheerful man.
  • Adjective After the Noun :
  1. Sofei was old.
  2. It looks red.
  3. He seems cheerful.
  • Adjective Immediately After the Noun :
  1. someone interesting.
  2. those present.
  3. something evil.

  • Nouns Used as Adjectives

Many words that are usually nouns can function as adjectives.

  • For example:
  1. autumn colours
  2. boat race
  3. computer shop
  4. Devon cream

  • Participles Used as Adjectives : Formed from a verb , a participle is a word that can be used as an adjective.
  • For example :
  1. While the spoken word can travel faster, you can’t take it home in your hand.
  2. Always be wary of any helpful item that weighs less than its operating manual. 

  • Infinitives Used as Adjectives : An infinitive verb (e.g., “to run,” “to jump”) can also function as an adjective.
  • For example :
  1. Progress is man’s ability to complicate simplicity.
  2. No human creature can give orders to love.

  • The order of adjectives :
  1. Quantity or number
  2. Quality or opinion
  3. Size
  4. Age
  5. Shape
  6. Color
  7. Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material)
  8. Purpose or qualifier
  • Examples :
  1. My sister adopted a beautiful big white dog.
  2. The house is green and red.
  3. An amazing new American movie. 

Posted in Languages, Learning, Reading, Self improvement, Speaking, Vocabulary, Writing

12 most misunderstood words

  • Historical

You think it means : historiac.

It means : pertaining to the past, but not necessarily important to it or a part of it.

  • Novel

You think it means : any book.

It means : a book that is a work of fiction.

  • Less

You think it means : fewer.

It means : a smaller amount of uncountable nouns.

  • Continual

You think it means : with no interruptions. But it means duration over a long period of time, not necessarily without interruptions.

  • Infamous

You think it means : famous

But it means : having extremely bad reputation ; never used in a positive manner.

  • Systematic

You think it means : systemic, pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.

It means : involving a system, method or plan ; orderly.

  • Proscribe

You think it means : prescribe ; to order the use of something. Such as midication ; to direct or to dictate.

It means : to denounce, panish outlaw, or exile.

  • Penultimate

You think it means : above, beyond, or better than ultimate.

It means : next to last.

  • Precocious

You think it means : cautious or misbehaving .

It means: unusually advanced in development, especially mentally.

  • Alternate

You think it means : alternative.

It means : to interchange regularly.

  • Moot

You think it means : no longer open for debate; factually wrong.

It means : open for debate, an argument or discussion.

  • Nauseous

You think it means : nauseated.

But it means : to induce nausea.

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Conjunctions

What is a conjunction?

It is a connective word that links words, phrases and clauses.

  • Types of conjunctions :
  1. Coordinating conjunctions : (for, but, and, nor, or, yet, so)
  2. Subordinating conjunctions : (While, Where, When, Until, Unless, Though, Since, Because, Although , After, If, Even if)
  3. Correlative conjunctions : (either… Or, both… and, whether… or, neither… nor, not only… but also)

-Here is a list of the most important conjunctions with meanings and examples :

  • Although

It is used for introducing a statement that makes the main statement seem.

Examples:

  1. Although it rained all day, we enjoyed the party very much.
  2. He failed in the exam, although he studied very hard.

  • Because

It is used to give reason. It is followed by a complete sentence with its own subject and verb.

Examples :

  1. He is delighted because I am here.
  2. The child ran because he was afraid.

  • However

We ccan express a contrast by using the adverb However with two sentences.

Examples :

  1. She is the best student in school. However, she does not do homeworks on time.
  2. Some people disagree with this idea. However, it is never been proven right.

  • Whereas

It is used for linking two ideas that contrast with each other.

Examples :

  1. Whereas we did all the job, they enjoyed themselves.
  2. Chicken meat is white, whereas that of an ix is red.

  • Therefore

It is used to show the result of an action.

Examples:

  1. There were not enough participants. Therefore, the trip was cancelled.
  2. I’m sleepy. Therefore, I’m going to bed.

  • Also

It is used to add an positive, agreeing thought.

Examples :

  1. Apart from French, she also teaches math.
  2. He also had a sense of responsibility about it.

  • Even If

It is used to emphasize that something will still be true if another thing happens.

Examples :

  1. Even if Alex earned a big salary, he would not buy a big car.
  2. You will go to the party, even if they don’t allow you.

  • Unless

Means ; except on the condition that.

Examples :

  1. She will be sick unless she stops eating.
  2. Unless
  3. Unless my son finish his homework, he can’t go out.

  • Whom

It is used to ask which person receives an action.

Examples :

  1. The man whom I saw at the theater last night is a pilot.
  2. This my neighbor whom I like a lot.

  • Both… and

It is used to refer to two things or people.

Examples:

  1. Both Alice and Susan have to comply with the rules.
  2. I used to like playing both football and basketball.

Posted in Grammar, Languages, Learning, Reading, Self improvement, Speaking, Writing

What is syntax?

  • The definition of syntax :

The word “syntax” comes from the Ancient Greek for “ordering together.”

syntax refers to the set of rules that determines the arrangement of words in a sentence. It is also the set of rules that helps readers and writers make sense of sentences.

So Syntax is one of the major components of grammar . It’s the concept that enables people to know how to start a question with a question word, or that adjectives generally come before the nouns they describe , subjects often come before verbs in non-question sentences , prepositional phrases start with prepositions , helping verbs come before main verbs , and so on.

  • English Syntactic rules :
  1. a subject and a verb express a complete thought, which is called independent clause.
  2. a subject and a verb, but it does not express a complete thought, which is called a dependant clause.
  3. English word order follows the subject-verb-object sequence.
  4. A sentence containing multiple independent clauses that are improperly joined.

  • Examples :

The following sentences give examples of how syntax can change meaning of a sentence or change the emphasis in a sentence:

  • Sentence One: Your bedroom is never clean.
  • Sentence Two: Clean your bedroom never is.

The syntax in Sentence Two puts stress on the cleanliness of the room.

  • Sentence One: I had my laundry cleaned.
  • Sentence Two: I had cleaned my laundry.

The syntax changes the meaning of this sentence.

In Sentence One, there is an implication that someone else did the landry.

In Sentence Two, the speaker did the laundry.