What is syntax?

  • The definition of syntax :

The word “syntax” comes from the Ancient Greek for “ordering together.”

syntax refers to the set of rules that determines the arrangement of words in a sentence. It is also the set of rules that helps readers and writers make sense of sentences.

So Syntax is one of the major components of grammar . It’s the concept that enables people to know how to start a question with a question word, or that adjectives generally come before the nouns they describe , subjects often come before verbs in non-question sentences , prepositional phrases start with prepositions , helping verbs come before main verbs , and so on.

  • English Syntactic rules :
  1. a subject and a verb express a complete thought, which is called independent clause.
  2. a subject and a verb, but it does not express a complete thought, which is called a dependant clause.
  3. English word order follows the subject-verb-object sequence.
  4. A sentence containing multiple independent clauses that are improperly joined.

  • Examples :

The following sentences give examples of how syntax can change meaning of a sentence or change the emphasis in a sentence:

  • Sentence One: Your bedroom is never clean.
  • Sentence Two: Clean your bedroom never is.

The syntax in Sentence Two puts stress on the cleanliness of the room.

  • Sentence One: I had my laundry cleaned.
  • Sentence Two: I had cleaned my laundry.

The syntax changes the meaning of this sentence.

In Sentence One, there is an implication that someone else did the landry.

In Sentence Two, the speaker did the laundry.

IELTS missteps

Before using any study material or answering any questions, you should know the common IELTS pitfalls that may lower your band score. Most of them can be avoided, and keep them in mind when you are practicing or taking the test. So let’s take a look at these mistakes to avoid them and get a higher scores!

Grammar and spelling mistakes

Many candidates lose valuable marks on simple grammar and spelling mistakes. You can avoid these mistakes by checking answers. Check your spelling carefully. Check singular, plural and past forms before the test ends.Check out out posts on common IELTS writing mistakes, IELTS speaking mistakes and IELTS listening mistakes to learn detailed IELTS missteps in these sections. You can get higher scores once you know these missteps and keep them in mind!

Running out of time

You need to allocate your time wisely during the test. You will run out of time if you don’t pay attention to the timing. Some questions take more time to answer, so you have to leave more time for them. In reading test, questions on the last passage usually take more time to think than the others. Therefore, if you don’t know the answer to a question, just move on to the next and come back to it later. In writing test, you should finish the first task in 20 minutes. Otherwise, there won’t be enough time for you to complete the second task.

Lack of preparation

Some candidates have good English communicating skill in social situations, so they believe that they can get high scores on the IELTS even if they don’t prepare a lot. However, taking a test is different from using the language in your daily life because the IELTS tests your overall English ability in social and academic settings. You should do adequate preparation to get familiar with the test format and content.

Memorizing answers

It is a bad idea to memorize answers for the speaking and writing test. There is only a little possibility to meet questions which you have prepared. Even if you are lucky enough to receive a similar question to what you have memorized, the examiners can easily spot it by asking you more questions.

Not following instructions

If you don’t follow instructions, you will definitely lose important marks. Though it seems easy to follow instructions, some candidates are likely to ignore them. Read instructions carefully before answering questions and keep them in mind.

Top 5 books to improve your English

Reading is one of the most important ways to practice English. It’s funny , relaxing and helps you to improve your comprehension skills and vocabulary.

To help you choose some helpful books, we’ve searched for some of novels and stories that are full of adventures and exciting characters – and better yet, they are easy to read for language learners.

So here are our top 5 books to help you practise English at home.

1. Wonder by R. J. Palacio

Wonder tells the story of August “Auggie” Pullman, a home-schooled fifth-grader living in Manhattan. He has a medical condition that has left his face disfigured. At the start of the novel, his parents decide to enrol him into a private middle school for the first time ever.

Throughout the school year, Auggie faces many challenges because of his appearance. He’s often bullied and beaten by other kids. Against all odds, the kind and courageous little boy manages to make friends.

Wonder made the New York Times bestseller list and was adapted into a hit movie starring Julia Roberts and Owen Wilson as Auggie’s parents and Jacob Tremblay as Auggie.

2.The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster

Published in 1961, The Phantom Tollbooth is still one of the best books for young adults and language learners.

The novel follows Milo, a young boy who goes on a fantasy adventure after receiving a mysterious package that contains a miniature tollbooth. He drives through the tollbooth in his toy car and finds himself in magical places where he meets all kinds of strange characters.

The text is littered with puns and wordplay, which make the book even more fun – and a great opportunity for language learners to practise their skills.

3.The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon

This mystery novel – with a mysterious title – takes the reader on a journey into the mind of Christopher John Francis Boone, a 15-year-old boy who sees the world and the people around him in a different way.

Christopher finds himself in the middle of an adventure after he discovers the dead body of the neighbour’s dog, speared by a garden fork. As the story unfolds, Christopher finds out the truth about his mother. He also travels to London alone and takes an A-level maths exam, all in a frenzy of excitement and fear.

We love this book – and the English level is perfect for intermediate learners.

4. Northern Lights by Philip Pullman

Northern Lights – known as The Golden Compass in the US – is the first book in Philip Pullman’s fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials. It was published in 1995 and has since become a classic in the young-adult fantasy genre.

The novel tells the story of twelve-year-old Lyra Belacqua. She’s a brave and curious girl who lives in a world of mythical creatures and parallel universes. Like all humans in this world, she has a “daemon”, a talking spirit animal that constantly accompanies her. Together, they embark on a journey that is filled with danger and excitement.

If you’re looking for a thrilling but easy book to read in English, Northern Lights is a great place to start. You won’t be able to put it down!

5. The Old Man and the Sea – Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway is well-known for his clear, straightforward writing style and short sentence structure, which is great for English language learners and many people have read it in school.

It’s the courageous tale of a Cuban fisherman and his battle to land a giant marlin and it’s a perfect introduction to Hemingway as an author.

How to write an A+ essay

writing an essay doesn’t have to be a challenging battle. In fact, once you understand how to write an essay, and how to take advantage of an outline, the paper will practically write itself for you!.

To help you navigate the art of writing an essay, we’ve provided a guide on how to write a perfect essay, by following easy and simple steps.

1-Pick a Topic and Start Your Research.

Before you sit down at your computer to begin typing up your essay, you must first choose a topic to tackle. Whatever you plan to write about, it is best to do your research before you start writing your essay. While you can certainly do supplemental research as you begin writing, doing the bulk of the research beforehand will help you have a clearer picture of the topic.

If your essay requires you to quote outside sources, gather books or links to reputable websites, so you will need in order to complete the assignment. Research your subject thoroughly, so you feel confident asserting your opinions, while you’re researching, think about the purpose of your essay.

2- Choose Your Thesis

The thesis of your essay is a statement of a claim that lets your reader know what your essay is about. Think of your thesis statement as the topic sentence for your whole essay. But more than just a topic, it gives your audience an idea of your stance. It’s a declarative sentence that you will refer back to throughout your paper.

For example, if you’re writing an essay about Shakespeare’s Hamlet, you might ask: Is Hamlet really insane or is he pretending? Come up with a theory that answers your question, and be sure that you can find evidence that supports your claim. Once you’ve done this, congratulations, you’ve come up with your thesis statement!

3-Write a Body Paragraphs

Many students think that they need to write the perfect introductory paragraph before they can get started on an essay, so they end up wasting a lot of time staring at a blank screen. Don’t get caught up in this trap! Dive right into your writing by inserting your thesis statement in place of your first paragraph, write the first body paragraph of your essay, and keep on going! It’s ok to jump around and leave gaps that you return to later to flush out. This way, you won’t feel the same pressure to start with perfection.

Be sure to give your paragraphs structure, so your writing is clear and stays on topic. Start each paragraph with a topic sentence. Next, give an example, usually a quote from your text or outside source, which supports your topic sentence. Explain what this example means, clarifying any ambiguous or difficult terms that your source may have used.

Finally, and perhaps most importantly, relate the example you just shared back to your thesis, so your reader understands how this example relates to the broader topic of your essay.

4- write the introduction and the conclusion

Basically, your introductory paragraph should first grab your reader’s attention, then give them a broad overview of your topic, leading to your thesis statement.

On the other hand, your conclusion paragraph should do just the opposite. Start with a reiteration of your thesis, move to a summary of what you have covered in your essay, and end with a general statement indicating the significance of your topic in the broader world in general. Go out with a bang! Just because you’re wrapping up your essay in your conclusion doesn’t mean you have to simply repeat everything you already discussed. End on a powerful note to leave your audience with a lasting impression.

5- Revise your essay

Revising your paper is a major step in our guide on how to write the perfect essay. After all, the last thing you want to do is send in a paper riddled with typos and grammatical errors.

Make it a goal to finish writing the bulk of your paper at least one day before it is due. Set your paper aside for a day before revising, so you can look over your work with fresh eyes. Print a copy of your essay and read it aloud, highlighting or making marks on any sentences, words, or phrases that don’t seem quite right.

Often, you can hear awkward phrasing, overused words, and other mistakes much more easily than you see them when you are reading silently. You will also be able to hear if you’ve written something that just doesn’t make sense.

Or if you have a friend, classmate, or private tutor who is willing to read your essay, let them give it a once over to catch any lingering errors.

How to have personal growth

Regardless of ways satisfied and content material you are together along with your lifestyles, you may constantly make wonderful adjustments for the good.

We, as individuals, have the strength to make our lives higher than they may be nowadays; therefore, if you’re looking for to make effective adjustments for your lifestyles, why now no longer take a look at out our top self-development guidelines and begin the usage of them nowadays to develop yourself and your lifestyles further?

1) appreciate what you have

Sadly in today’s world, many humans agree with that happiness comes material possessions; however, that actually isn’t the case. Sure, treating your self once in a while feels great and is definitely some thing you must do, however relying on it for happiness is the perfect way to in no way be really happy. Plus, shopping for increasingly more matters should turn out to be leading to economic problems, that can have a bad effect for your life in addition to your health.

The direction to real happiness comes from inside and from appreciating now no longer best who you are, however the ones round you also. Each day take a couple of minutes to consider the positives factors of your lifestyles and be grateful for them and the way they got here into being.

2) love yourself and appreciate who you are

The first step to self-development is to simply accept who you are. Sadly, however, that is regularly some distance less complicated stated than done. If you discover it hard to actually be given who you are, don’t worry; this isn’t some thing that may occur overnight, and could regularly take months – perhaps even years – to occur.

Remember, you’re now no longer intended to be anybody else but you, and at the same time as uni can be placed down or criticised for being your self in normal life, it is important to counted being your self as this could help you develop in self belief over time.

It may be hard to see your self in a wonderful light, specifically if you’ve usually had a bad view of your self, however taking step one to accepting your self is one you’ll now no longer remorse taking – although it’s far hard and makes you feel uncomfortable!

3) have a physical activity

Exercise and bodily activity
regularly divides people. Some love it; a few hate it – however on the quit of the day, a healthful frame definitely does same a healthful mind; therefore, exercise numerous instances in line with week may have a excellent effect for your intellectual and bodily health.

Exercising releases endorphins, which in layman’s terms, are feel- correct hormones so that it will have a effective impact for your mood. If you’ve ever had a post- exercise buzz, then you’ve were given endorphins to thank you for that!

4) learning new skills

Learning new skills may be daunting; I assume we are able to all agree on that; however, it’s additionally a wonderful way to enhance self-self belief and enables us to develop as a person. Furthermore, it’ll additionally growth the choice to study extra new talents, which will, in turn, growth self belief – and probably happiness – even more.

The Best English Pronunciation online Dictionaries

You possibly already use a dictionary to translate English words, however on-line or digital dictionaries can provide many extra benefits, such as pronunciation guides.These types of dictionaries can be beneficial for practicing English pronunciation, and they may be available on-line for free.

Here are a number of the great pronunciation dictionaries you could discover and use online.

  • Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Merriam-Webster is likewise recognized as “America’s most beneficial and famous dictionary.” It’s no wonder then that it’s here on this list! The dictionary gives specific definitions and information about the phrases you look up, in addition to clear, good-quality audio pronunciations.

You also can download the free app version of this dictionary, which comes with some unique features. With the app, you can look for words by speaking them out loud into your device’s microphone—that is awesome for when you don’t know how to spell a word, but it’s also excellent speaking practice. If there are any words that interest you, you can keep them into your own “favorites” list.

  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries

Oxford’s on-line dictionary, supplied by the well-reputable Oxford University Press, is a great useful resource for amateur learners. Sometimes, dictionaries can provide quite a few information that may make things confusing—Oxford’s dictionary takes out a lot of the confusion and offers you the primary stuff you need. The definitions are written in an easy-to-recognize manner and you get lots of example sentences that show you the way the phrase is used.

The dictionary has pronunciation options: you may pay attention to the phrase spoken in British English or in American English. The pronunciations are accomplished by unique male and female humans (now no longer robots!), which may be exceptional to your listening practice.

  • WordReference

WordReference is a beneficial multilingual dictionary. It helps translations for a number of languages, so in case your local language is included, you may find phrases in English by writing it out on your language, or look for English phrases and get translations on your language. This could be very useful while you need to ensure you’re getting the proper translations.

WordReference additionally helps you to pay attention to audio pronunciations in distinctive English accents, greater than many different dictionaries. Most on-line dictionaries may also simply provide one British pronunciation and one American pronunciation, however WordReference additionally specifies different particular accents including Irish, Scottish, American Southern or even Jamaican. After you look up a word, you could click on on the “Listen” button to choose the accent you need to listen and alternate the speed of the audio.

  • Collins Online Dictionary

This dictionary gives maximum of what the alternative indexed dictionaries have, but with a few more audio features. Once you look up a phrase, Collins dictionary additionally gives audio pronunciation of the phrase in its different forms (which include in past tense or participle form). There are even audio pronunciations for the instance sentences that show the phrase in use, which may be very beneficial while you need to exercise speaking in complete phrases.

Collins dictionary offers barely different definitions: the first “Collins” definition, the second “British English” definition and the third “American English” definition. With every definition section, you may listen both the British or American pronunciation of the word. In a few cases, there may also even be a video clip of a actual person pronouncing the word!

  • Forvo

Forvo is a user-generated pronunciation guide wherein local speakers post audio clips of themselves pronouncing certain phrases or phrases. You can search for a word, study its definition and pay attention to how different people from different locations say it. There also are pronunciations for complete sentences and phrases as well!

Forvo is well-appreciated due to the fact that real people are those who speaking the words. You also can see how certain speakers are ranked of their pronunciations; the pronunciations with the maximum likes can be the ones you need to focus on.

How to improve your written English skills

Writing in English is typically thought to be easier than speaking in English by many language learners. Usually, this simply means that people find it easier to write correctly when it comes to grammar, but they ignore fluency and readability. These are crucial if you plan to continue your education in an English-speaking country or if you seek a career that demands English.

1)Write as if you were speaking.

Although this isn’t always the case, writing like you talk can help improve the fluidity and readability of your workThat doesn’t imply you should use a lot of slang terms and uh, eh, and er in your writing. However, consider how people speak in basic English and how natural it sounds, and strive to achieve the same effortless flow in your writing.

2) Acquire new vocabulary.

It goes without saying that expanding your vocabulary will help you write with more confidence and fluency. Create a personal dictionary if you haven’t already. Write down and translate any unfamiliar words you come across, then test yourself to see how many you can recall before utilizing them in your writing and interactions.

3)Make it a habit to write every day.

Practice makes perfect, as the saying goes. So the only way to get better at writing is to keep doing it. Even 5 or 10 minutes each day, if done consistently, will significantly enhance your written English. You may keep an English-language journal, write a blog about your experiences learning English and living in a new country, or even begin creating your social media bio.

4)read lots

You can enhance your writing skills even if you don’t write. You may improve your vocabulary and understanding of how English is used by reading as much as possible.

We don’t mean you should spend your time studying grammar and sentence clauses—just read for pleasure and you’ll pick up on things intuitively! You might begin with your favorite book’s English translation or work your way through these famous classics.

5) Make sure there are no mistakes.

When you finish writing something, the last thing you should do is carefully examine it to ensure that it makes sense and that you haven’t made any errors.

Tips for better health

Accepting that you need to make adjustments to become healthier and fitter is the first step toward achieving greater health. Here are some suggestions to help you enhance your health and become a better version of yourself.

  • Learn everything you can about how to improve your health and live a healthy lifestyle to support your new way of thinking. You may use the internet, books, DVDs, clubs, gyms, and support groups to your advantage; learning everything there is to know about healthy living provides you with a solid foundation from which to build.

  • Replace old foods with healthy alternatives, and don’t forget to buy any small gadgets you’ll need to support your new eating habits, such as blenders and food scales.

  • Positive ideas and self-talk or affirmations are essential; they will give you confidence in the beginning and will keep you going through the difficult periods that will inevitably arise during the early stages of transformation.

  • Give up any unhealthy habits you may have, such as smoking or drinking; you will never achieve your maximum level of health if you continue to smoke or drink on a regular basis.

  • Make it a life goal to have a positive outlook on life, which will undoubtedly result in a healthier you. It will be much easier to achieve if you are determined to bettering your health.

  • On your new diet, make sure you obtain the necessary 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day; fruits and vegetables are high in critical vitamins.

  • You must begin somewhere, so begin by examining and reorganizing your kitchen in preparation for your new lifestyle. Reorganize your kitchen cabinets, cupboards, and refrigerator to remove all traces of the old you and to make room for the items that will aid you in your new lifestyle.

Adverbs of frequency

What are adverbs of frequency?

Frequency Adverbs are a type of adverb that describes the frequency of something.They are affect or qualify the meaning of a phrase by telling us how often or frequently something happens.

A frequency adverb is exactly what it sounds like: a temporal adverb. Frequency adverbs always convey how frequently something happens, whether in definite or indeterminate words. Weekly, daily, or yearly are examples of adverbs that describe definite frequency.

Sometimes, often, and rarely are examples of adverbs that describe uncertain frequency without specifying a specific time range.

Adverbs of frequency rules

These simple rules for using frequency adverbs will assist you in doing so correctly:

  • When talking about how often something happens, always utilize adverbs of frequency.
  • Adverbs of frequency are frequently used with the present simple tense to describe routine or recurrent activity.
  • If there is just one verb in a sentence, put the adverb of frequency in the middle of the sentence, after the subject but before the verb. Tom, for example, never flies. He is a regular bus rider.
  • When there are multiple verbs in a sentence, put the adverb of frequency before the main verb. For instance, they have traveled extensively over Europe.
  • When in the negative or making a question, use the adverb of frequency before the main verb. Do you, for example, regularly get up so late?

Examples of Adverbs of Frequency

Each sentence includes an example of a frequency adverb, which is italicized for easy identification.

  • Each egg is rotated once an hour in the incubator.
  • At least once a year, we take a vacation.
  • He’s always late for work.
  • We don’t see John too often.
  • My dentist advised me to floss twice a day.

List of Frequency Adverbs

Many of the most common adverbs of frequency are included in this list; however, there are many other words that can be used in this capacity.

Always

Annually

Constantly

Daily

Eventually

Ever

Frequently

Generally

Hourly

frequently

Later

Monthly

Never

Next

Nightly

Normally

Now

Occasionally

Often

Quarterly

Rarely

Regularly

Sometimes

Soon

Practical ways for self improvement

Are you someone who enjoys learning new things? Do you always strive for self-improvement, no matter what it takes?There is always something we can improve about ourselves. Because human potential is boundless, no point of no growth is imaginable.We can always improve when we believe we are good.

Get up early

Many people believe that getting up early increases productivity and improves quality of life.You’ll have time to devote to self-improvement before the rest of the world wakes up if you get up early. You’ll gain more time in your day, enjoy the morning calm, and soak in the early-morning sunlight, which will assist your brain adjust to active mode.

Get out of Your Comfort zone

Hard work and sweat are required for true growth. We can’t progress if we’re too comfy; we’ll become stagnant.

Determine where your comfort zone boundaries are and how you might begin to venture outside of them gradually Go on a hike on a track you’ve never been on, cook a dish you’ve never tried, or say yes when a friend invites you out when you’d ordinarily say no.

Avoid Negative People

There will always be negative individuals wherever we go. If you feel they are dragging you down, don’t spend too much time with them.

Stop Watching TV

Many TV shows and commercials are designed to distract you rather than empower or educate you. This time would be better spent with close friends, doing something you enjoy, or exercising.

Start a 30-Day Challenge

Make a goal for yourself and give yourself 30 days to attain it. Your goal could be to establish a new pastime or stick with a new habit.30 days is exactly enough time to strategize, prepare, implement, evaluate, and achieve your goal.

Learn From People Who Inspire You

Consider persons you admire and who inspire you. As you discover how to develop yourself, these people mirror particular attributes you desire to have for yourself.What attributes do you admire in them that you wish you possessed? How do you go about acquiring these qualities?

Focus on your To-Do list

Starting the day with a list of chores to perform will help you stay on track. Days when you don’t do this, on the other hand, might be hectic and unproductive. Because you haven’t made a plan to tackle each issue, you may forget about some of them or run out of time.