Modal verbs

The modal verbs in English grammar are can, could, may, might, must, need not, shall/will, should/ought to.

The use of modal verbs :

  • ability
  • permission
  • possibility
  • obligation
  • Prohibition
  • Lack of necessity
  • Advice

The differences between the modal verbs and the normal verbs:

1: They don’t use an ‘s’ for the third person singular.

2: They make questions by inversion (‘she can go’ becomes ‘can she go?’).

3: They are followed directly by the infinitive of another verb (without ‘to’).

The usage of modals verbs :

  • Can : to express ability, for example: I can speak a little Spanish.
  • may: to express possibility, for example : I may be home late.
  • must : to express obligation, for example: I must go now, or to express strong belief She, for example : she must be over 90 years old.
  • Should : to give advice, for example :you must stop smoking.
  • Would : to request or offer, for example : would you like a cup of tea.

Examples :

  • Can I borrow your pencil??
  • Can I speak to Sara??
  • May I ask you a few questions?

We use the modals in the previous questions to ask for permission.

  • John can speak three languages.
  • I will be able to help you tomorrow.

So, we the use the modals here to express the ability.

  • Adam  may be coming to see us tomorrow.
  • This game might be very dangerous.

The usage of modals here for the possibility.

  • I must memorize all the rules about modals.
  • You mustn’t smoke here. It’s forbidden.

We use the modal must here to express the necessity.

  • You should take care of your health.
  • You must try to lose weight.

We use modals to say some advices.

The importance of being bilingual

Fortunately, more and more people of all ages and backgrounds are learning languages today. In fact, more than half of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual. So what are those who speak only one language missing out on?

Increased Creativity

Furthermore, being bilingual helps to improve your creativity. Bilingual children or adults have been found to possess advanced creativity. The ability to speak more than one language shapes the brain’s capability of thinking outside the box and thinking up innovative ways to solve problems. This trait enables bilinguals to pursue bilingual jobs and hobbies.

Better Educational Performance

Bilingual students have been found to possess a heightened intelligence. Numerous studies by York University have shown that bilingual students are more focused and less distracted than monolingual students are. Students that have acquired bilingual education, that is, taught using their second languages, go ahead in life to have better shots at bilingual jobs.

Improves Communication Skills

Another fantastic benefit of being bilingual is that it improves your communication skills. By being bilingual, you can travel to and foreign place and communicate better with the natives. The fact that you interact with the locals will make the experience amazing. By communicating with the indigenes using their language, you will get to learn more about the place. Thus, making your trip fascinating.

Improves your Health

The process of learning a second language holds back age-related deteriorating diseases. Bilinguals are less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer’s disease earlier in life than monolinguals. People that know a second language are also bound to experience low-stress levels, and better neurological health.

Types of adverbs

Adverbs describe verbs , adjectives, and even other adverbs. They specify when, where, how, and why something happened and to what extent or how often.

Types of Adverbs

Adverbs of time

Adverbs of manner

Adverbs of degree

Adverbs of place

Adverbs of frequency

Here is a brief explanation of the adverbs contains the meaning of each adverb with examples using each type of adverb.

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place illustrate where the verb is happening. It’s usually placed after the main verb or object, or at the end of the sentence.

Examples of adverbs of place: 

here, there, nowhere, everywhere, out, in, above, below, inside, outside, into

  • We went into the cave, and there were bats everywhere!
  • There aren’t any Pokémon here, let’s look somewhere else.

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner provide more information about how a verb is done. Adverbs of manner are probably the most common of all adverbs. They’re easy to spot too. Most of them will end in –ly.

Examples of adverbs of manner:

 neatly, slowly, quickly, sadly, calmly, politely, loudly, kindly, lazily

  • The young soldier folded his clothes neatly in a pile at the end of his bunk.
  • politely opened the door for my grandmother as she stepped out of the car.

Adverbs of Time

An adverb of time provides more information about when a verb takes place. Adverbs of time are usually placed at the beginning or end of a sentence. When it is of particular importance to express the moment something happened we’ll put it at the start of a sentence.

Examples of adverbs of time: 

never, lately, just, always, recently, during, yet, soon, sometimes, usually, so far

  • So far, we have found twelve grammar mistakes.
  • We recently bought a new car.

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of degree explain the level or intensity of a verb, adjective, or even another adverb.

Example of adverbs of degree:

almost, quite, nearly, too, enough, just, hardly, simply.

Aren’t you hungry? You’ve hardly touched your dinner.

I’m so excited to see the new James Bond movie!

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency explain how often the verb occurs. They’re often placed directly before the main verb of a sentence.

Examples of adverbs of frequency:

never, always, rarely, sometimes, normally, seldom, usually, again.

I rarely eat fast food these days.

They always go to the same restaurant every Friday.

Parts of speech

Part of speech is one of  basic English grammar consist of nine main categories into which words are classified according to their functions in sentences, such as nouns or verbs.

Parts of Speech

  • nouns
  • pronouns
  • verbs
  • adjectives
  • adverbs
  • prepositions
  • conjunctions
  • articles/determiners
  • interjections
  • Some words can be considered more than one part of speech, depending on context and usage.
  • Interjections can form complete sentences on their own.

Every sentence you write or speak in English includes words that fall into some of the nine parts of speech.Learning the names of the parts of speech will make you gain a basic understanding of sentence structure.here are parts of speech with the definitions and examples.

Noun

Nouns are a person, place, thing, or idea. They can take on a myriad of roles in a sentence, from the subject of it all to the object of an action. They are capitalized when they’re the official name of something or someone, called proper nouns in these cases.

Examples: pirate, Caribbean, ship, freedom, Captain Jack Sparrow.

Pronoun

Pronouns stand in for nouns in a sentence. They are more generic versions of nouns that refer only to people.

Examples:​ I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who, which, anybody, ourselves.

Verb

Verbs are action words that tell what happens in a sentence. They can also show a sentence subject’s state of being (is, was). Verbs change form based on tense (present, past) and count distinction (singular or plural).

Examples: sing, dance, believes, seemed, finish, eat, drink, be, became.

Adjective

Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. They specify which one, how much, what kind, and more. Adjectives allow readers and listeners to use their senses to imagine something more clearly.

Examples: hot, lazy, funny, unique, bright, beautiful, poor, smooth.

Adverb

Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs. They specify when, where, how, and why something happened and to what extent or how often.

Examples: softly, lazily, often, only, hopefully, softly, sometimes.

Preposition

Prepositions show spacial, temporal, and role relations between a noun or pronoun and the other words in a sentence. They come at the start of a prepositional phrase, which contains a preposition and its object.

Examples: up, over, against, by, for, into, close to, out of, apart from.

Conjunction

Conjunctions join words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence. There are coordinating, subordinating, and correlative conjunctions.

Examples: and, but, or, so, yet, with.

Articles and Determiners

Articles and determiners function like adjectives by modifying nouns, but they are different than adjectives in that they are necessary for a sentence to have proper syntax. Articles and determiners specify and identify nouns, and there are indefinite and definite articles.

Examples: articles: a, an, the; determiners: these, that, those, enough, much, few, which, what.

Interjection

Interjections are expressions that can stand on their own or be contained within sentences. These words and phrases often carry strong emotions and convey reactions.

Examples: ah, whoops, ouch, yabba dabba do!

English Phrases to speak fluently .

Below are basic phrases that people use every day. They are useful phrases that’ll also help your knowledge of English to grow.

1. I really appreciate

You can use this phrase to thank someone. For example, you might say:

I really appreciate your help.

– Or you can combine the two phrases :Thanks so much with I really appreciate.

For example : Thanks so much for cooking dinner. I really appreciate it.

2. Excuse me.

When you need to get through but there’s someone blocking your way, say “Excuse me.”

You can also say this phrase to politely get someone’s attention. For example:

Excuse me sir, you dropped your wallet.

Excuse me, do you know what time is it?

3. I’m sorry.

Use this phrase to apologize, whether for something big or small. Use “for” to give more detail. For example:

I’m sorry for being so late.

I’m sorry for the mess. I wasn’t expecting anyone today.

You can use “really” to show you’re very sorry for something:

I’m really sorry I didn’t invite you to the party.

4. What do you think?

When you want to hear someone’s opinion on a topic, use this question.

For example : I’m not sure if we should paint the room yellow or blue. What do you think?

5.(Oh) never mind.

Let’s say someone doesn’t understand an idea you’re trying to explain. If you’ve explained it over and over and want to stop, just say “oh, never mind.” You can now talk about something else.

For eexample :

A: Are you going to the grocery store today?

B: No, I’m not. But why—do you need something?

A: Oh, never mind. It’s okay, I’ll go tomorrow.

6. That sounds great.

If you like an idea, you can respond to #6 with this phrase. “Great” can be replaced with any synonym, such as “awesome,” “perfect,” “excellent” or “fantastic.”

For eexample :

A: My mom is baking cookies this afternoon. We could go to my house and eat some. How does that sound?

B: That sounds fantastic!

English idioms for daily use.

Idioms are used constantly in the English language , both at work as well as at home, and they are the key for language progression. So review and practise the phrases below, using these example sentences.

A piece of cake

In a sentence: that exam was a piece of cake am sure I’ll get a good grade.

Meaning: Extremely easy and straightforward.

Let the cat out of the bag

In a sentence: I’m planning a surprise holiday for Sara to celebrate our wedding anniversary. Don’t let the cat out of the bag!

Meaning: Reveal a secret by mistake.

Break a leg

In a sentence: I hope the performance goes well, Tom . Break a leg!

Meaning: Good luck! (said before performing onstage)

I could eat a horse

In a sentence: I’m so glad I ordered an extra large pizza. I could eat a horse!

Meaning: I feel extremely hungry.

Once in a blue moon

In a sentence: James only cooks at home once in a blue moon.

Meaning: Very rarely.

A tough cookie

In a sentence: Megan’s a tough cookie. She doesn’t mind when people criticise her work.

Meaning: Determined and physically or emotionally strong.

See eye to eye

In a sentence: I’m glad my boss and I see eye to eye about recycling in the office.

Meaning: Agree fully or have a similar attitude.

Steal someone’s thunder

In a sentence: Hanna stole my thunder when she told the professor the result of my experiment.

Meaning: Stole my idea, or diverted attention away from me.

On the ball

In a sentence: she is really on the ball and never makes a mistake at work

Meaning: Alert and efficient.

Have butterflies in your stomach

In a sentence: Adam had butterflies in his stomach as he waited for his date outside the restaurant.

Meaning: Was excited and nervous.

How to learn English grammar effectively

1.Be socialize

Trying to learn the language without talking to other people is hard. Because it makes you part of society so take any chance to talk to people, even on the phone. as a result you will learn grammar as you listen to how other people use the words and speak even if you do not know the rules.

2.learn the parts of speech.

You need to know this when you are learning grammar, because the parts of speech will make it easy for you to use the word in a sentence. When you make an effort to identify words as parts of speech all the time, you will get a better idea of how the words come together in asentence, Listed below are the different parts of speech and their descriptions.

• Noun – is the name of a person, place, or thing. They can be proper nouns which are specific names such as Julie, Cambridge University, and iPhone, or common nouns or general terms such as girl, school, or smart phone.
• Pronoun – takes the place of a noun in a sentence. The types of pronouns are personal (he, she, it); possessive (mine, hers, his); reflexive (myself, herself, himself, itself); reciprocal (each other); relative (that, which, whom, whose); demonstrative (this, that); interrogative (who, what, when); and indefinite (anyone, anything, nothing, somebody).
• Adjective – describes a noun or pronoun, i.e. pretty girl, prestigious school, gray smart phone
• Article – a special adjective used to define a noun as definite (the) or indefinite (a/an)
• Verb – action word, i.e. jump, walk, speak, right, be
• Adverb – describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb, i.e. jump high, walk slowly, very pretty, highly prestigious school
• Conjunction – puts together two parts of a sentence, (and, or, but)
• Preposition – shows position or direction, used with a noun or pronoun, i.e., He went up the stairs. Other examples: Julie came from school.
• Interjection – words that show emotions, i.e., Wow!, Ouch!

3. Study verb forms.

verb forms are one of the biggest challenges in learning grammar . It can be time, person, number, aspect, voice, mood, or gender. You probably know about present, past, and future tense. These are conjugations of time.

There are two types of verbs when it comes to conjugation, regular and irregular. Regular verbs are easy because they follow a pattern. One example is the verb “bake.” To make the present form “bake” into the past, you simply add “d,” so the past tense is “baked.” For the future tense, you add the word “will” or “shall” before the verb, so “will bake” or “shall bake.” All verbs that follow this pattern are regular verbs.

You might have some problems when it comes to irregular verbs, though. There are no set rules, so you need to know how to conjugate each word. The past tense of “take,” for example, is not “taked” as you might think because it looks the same as “bake,” but the correct answer is in fact “took.” The past tense of “buy” is “bought,” while “run” is “ran.” and so on.

So once you know many verbs in simple present, past, and future verb forms, you can start practicing with present perfect, past perfect, and past continuous.

4.watch to learn

The best way to learn grammar is to watch movies and television shows in the language you are interested in, and listen carefully. Go back if you did not understand anything. Try to get copies with English subtitles to help you understand what people with heavy accents are saying.

5. Learn patterns.

You will notice patterns as you identify parts of speech in a sentence. Try to identify them without checking your grammar notes, and follow the patterns when you make your own sentences. You will see how your efforts have paid off so far.

How to improve your spoken English

Speaking is the most important skill to learn any language, because when you learn the language you want to use it to communicate with people fluently, so here are 5 tips to improve speaking skill in English.

1. Listen and read

Thare are many ways to increase your vocabulary and to improve your spoken English like listening to music , the radio or the podcast. Also you have to read books , magazines and blogs to improve your listening and reading , all of that will help you to find new and interesting expressions , slang terms and synonyms.

2.Speak.

We know that there isn’t a magic pill for better speaking. Basically, the best way to speak better is to, well – speak! Commit to practicing often and with as many different people , such as your friends, their families, your coworkers, classmates, employees at the coffee shops, supermarket, post-office and other places you visit. If you’re learning in your own country, increase your practice time by meeting your classmates after class, finding an language exchange partner or joining an online community of learners.

3.Record your voice

Hearing yourself on tape shows you things you might not realize . On the other hand, you could be pleasantly surprised to hear that your speaking is far better than you thought! For bonus points, take your recording to your teacher or to a native speaker friend and let them give you feedback.

4.learn phrases not words.

Another tip to increase your fluency is to speak using a variety of phrases rather than individual words. Instead of asking directly “Hello, how are you today?”, mix it up by choosing other expressions like “What’s up, man?” “Hey dude!” or “How ya going, mate?” (Be careful though: Some expressions will be very informal and not ideal for some situations.

5.Have fun

It’s easier to learn something new when you’re having fun. So begin your speaking practice by talking to yourself when you’re alone, singing along with popular songs in English, or doing one-minute “impromptu speeches” on randomly-chosen topics (such as snakes, coffee, India, or any funny subjects you like.

Things you need to know before learning any language.

If you want to learn a new language during the next few months , here are a few things to keep in mind as you adjust to your new indoor lifestyle.

You Should know your motivation to learn the new language.

So if you want to learn a new language each day, you must find a reason that gives you the energy to continue, even during the moments when you don’t feel that you like it. So if you have a strong reason to learn a language, you’ll discover that you can overcome any feelings of self-doubt, and do whatever it takes to make progress towards fluency.

It’s Normal To Make A Lot Of Mistakes.

When I first started learning a new language, one of my biggest fears was making mistakes during conversations. For example, I was scared of the native speakers not being able to understand me. I felt like they’d ridicule me or laugh.

I’ve learned that making mistakes is a natural part of the language learning process. Because if you don’t know what needs improvement , it’s impossible to make continual steps to achieving fluency in your desired language.

You Need To Diversify Your Learning.

One of the biggest mistakes that people make is believing that spending five minutes each day on Duolingo is all they need to achieve fluency. But unfortunately, that’s not the case.

Instead, you need to find a variety of different learning tools. Like watching movies with subtitles , or listening to foreign music, or anything else that could help you to become immersed in your desired language.

When you only use one method of learning, you’ll quickly find it boring and you will not put in the necessary work to achieve fluency. But when you diversify your learning strategies , you can use whatever technique you want to make continual progress each day.